Meat livestock mainly refers to: pork, beef cattle, meat dogs, broilers, ducks, meat rabbits and so on. The best slaughter period is now described.
The growth and development of pig pigs is characterized by slower weight gain in the early stage, faster weight gain in the middle period, and slower weight gain in the later period. In general, when the weight reaches about 100 kg, the weight gain stays at a certain level. When it exceeds 100 kg, the daily weight gain begins to decline, and when it reaches 150 kg, it rarely gains weight. The slaughter weight of the pig is too large, the daily weight gain is low, the material consumption is high, and the cost is high; the slaughter weight is too small, although the material is saved, but the slaughter rate is low, the meat quality is poor, and the benefit is also not good. Judging from the carcass quality, the local early maturing varieties in China are the most suitable for slaughter at a body weight of about 75 kg. At this time, the meat quality is good, and the slaughtering rate is also high; the second is the female parent of the local pig and the male lean meat pig is the second parent. Yuan or ternary crossbred pigs are best slaughtered at 7-8 months of age and weighing 90-100 kg.
According to the experiment, the yak produced by the cross between the Charolais bull and the local cow was reduced from 1.19 kg to 1.12 kg from birth until 6 months of age. The daily increase from July to December was from 1. 06 kg dropped to 0.91 kg. According to foreign reports, calves in the first 6-8 months after birth, the fastest growing muscles, and later with the increase in body weight and age, muscle growth slows, feed utilization rate gradually decreased. Therefore, it is better to slaughter beef cattle at the age of one and a half, two to two years old, and the economic benefit is best at this time.
According to the characteristics of physical changes such as â€œsummer full, autumn fat, winter thin, and lack of springâ€, the sheep lambs gained the most weight in September. The sheep weighs about 40 kg and the goat weighs about 25 kg. The appropriate slaughter time is at the end of September or early October. In order to meet the needs of the New Year's Day and Spring Festival holiday markets, we can take supplements and feedings to ensure the growth of mutton sheep. In the annual January and February slaughter, we can sell a good price.
The previous meat dogs of meat dogs were raised for 8 months and weighed more than 20 kilograms before being slaughtered. The economic benefits were poor. At present, the breeding improved dogs are more likely to adopt captive breeding methods because the activity of meat dogs is small and the energy consumption in the body is small. Generally, fattening up to 4 months of age and weighing up to 20 kg can be achieved. At this time, the meat dog grows fast, the feed conversion rate is high, and the meat quality is good. If the feeding time is too long, the meat dog grows slowly and the economic efficiency is poor.
Broiler modern broilers are characterized by early growth speed, hens at 7 weeks of age, and cocks at 9 weeks of age have peaked in weight gain, and later the rate of weight gain gradually slows down. With the increase of the age, the consumption of broilers per kilogram of weight gain also increases, the age of slaughter is delayed, the feed conversion rate is reduced, the fat is more, the quality of meat is reduced, and it is economically uneconomical. Some chickens can reach the market weight standard at 6 weeks of age and consume less feed, but the slaughter quality is poor, the proportion of pectoral muscles and leg muscles is small, and the rate of meat production is low. The premature slaughter benefit is not high. At present, China's broiler chicken production adopts an all-in, full-out feeding system. Combined with advanced breeding techniques, broilers are most suitable for slaughter at 6-7 weeks of age and weighing 1.9-2 kg. At this time, the broiler chicken has a high feed return rate and good meat quality, and is deeply loved by consumers.
Duck ducks are generally marketed at 7 weeks of age and weighing up to 2.5 kg. For sale or export of cut meat, meat ducks should be slaughtered at the age of 8 weeks and the chest muscles are full. The choice of the age of the slaughter depends on the object of sale, but meat ducks must be slaughtered after 8 weeks of age.
Meat rabbits are best slaughtered when they are 3 months old and have a body weight of 2-2.5 kilograms. Too long a fattening time will affect the annual slaughter volume.
The human tongue has a range of specific taste sensation neural receptors called taste receptors which are organized mainly as papillae on the tongue. When stimulated by chemicals, natural or synthetic, organic or inorganic, cations or anions, the receptors send signals to the brain which interprets the stimulations as sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and savory (unami, meaty taste). For examples, cations such as Na+ present in the table salt evoke the salty taste, and H+ presents in acids evokes a sour taste. Organic compounds such as sugars, dextrins and glycerol result in sweet taste, glutamate results in savory taste, while many toxic compounds such as nicotine, morphine, caffeine, quinine, etc. result in bitter taste. The sensation of tastes is an evolution trait for defense against poisons (normally evoke bitter taste), and for allowance of nutrients intake (normally evoke sweet or savory taste).
Sugar is a natural sweetener as well as a nutrient consumed in vast quantity around the world. It is one of the major calorie intakes by humans. Over consumption of sugar often leads to obesity and other related medical conditions. High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) is a manifestation of the disease diabetic mellitus; if not managed properly, it could lead to a range of medical complications. To combat these medical conditions, high potency Sweeteners with no calorie or low calorie intake are often being used to substitute sugar. Proper control of calorie intake, coupled with the use of these sugar substitutes has been very effective in managing the medical conditions.
Besides the medical indications, using sugar substitutes brings the economic benefit of lowering the cost of many foods and consumer products, from soft drinks to cakes, pasties, and even toothpastes.
A variety of chemical compounds, natural or synthetic, can evoke sweet taste, but not all of them are safe (for example lead acetate has a sweet taste but it is extremely toxic), nor are sweet taste specific (for examples, many of synthetic sweeteners can also evoke other senses of taste such as bitterness or metallic sensation). Therefore, selection of the right sweetener for a specific use depends not only on the cost, but also more importantly on the health and safety, the sweetening potency, the effectiveness under various physical conditions such as cooking temperature (heat stability) and pH, as well as other unwanted tense of tastes of the sweetener.
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