(B) a reasonable top dressing 1. Appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer: nitrogen is the basis of fruit tree growth and results. Within a certain limit, adding nitrogen fertilizer can significantly improve the photosynthetic performance of leaves, and increase tree vigor and yield. However, exceeding the limit can easily lead to prosperous foliage, difficulty in flowering, and fruit quality decline. And after a large amount of nitrogen (usually in the irrigation of large water after fertilizer) due to the limited absorption capacity of the root system, excess nutrients will be leaching loss, resulting in a great waste of fertilizer, and even a large amount of fertilizer application occurs. Therefore, while emphasizing the increase of investment in orchards, it is also necessary to take into account the needs of the trees and the benefits of fertilization. Do not blindly invest a lot. The appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer should be determined based on comprehensive consideration of soil fertility, fertilizer holding capacity and tree type, generally 1 year to 2 years, each cultivable can recover urea 50 grams to 100 grams, 3 years to 4 years old tree 150 200 grams, after 5 to 6 years, the trees that enter the fruiting period, because they are mostly planted in close-packed small crowns, and there are more than 50 planted acres, and the density varies greatly, so the size and load of the single tree Different amounts, it is not appropriate to calculate the amount of fertilization per plant, generally not more than 15 kilograms of urea per acre per crop, the amount of urea per acre of 30 kg to 45 kg per year. 2. Nitrogen chasing from the ground: Under the condition of insufficient organic matter, appropriate recovery of nitrogen fertilizers on barren land can significantly improve the photosynthetic performance of leaves, thus increasing the accumulation level of photosynthetic products of trees and playing a role in â€œcarbon addition by nitrogenâ€. . The accumulation of photosynthetic products in turn promotes the growth of the root system and increases the absorption capacity of the root system. Barely thin trees, flower buds are difficult to form, etc. are related to the level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism of plants. Therefore, an appropriate increase in the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen carbon, nitrogen fertilization is an effective measure to produce trees and flowers in the orchard. The topdressing methods for different soils are also different. After the spring nitrogen topdressing, the fertilizer usually starts to function from 10 days to 15 days, generally 5 days to 7 days in summer, and between autumn and autumn, which is mainly related to the level of soil organic matter and adsorption capacity. After 20 days of topdressing (high temperature season), the fertilizer effect is less pronounced. Low levels of organic matter, poor fertility, poor protection of the mountains and sand, nutrient leaching with water is serious, the effective period of fertilizer is shorter, and often in July to August the rainy season caused soil denitrification. Therefore, topdressing in mountain sand should be applied sparingly, and it is better to use nutrients in the water to penetrate the concentrated distribution layer of the root system. After the rainy season, a small amount of topdressing nitrogen fertilizer can be used to make up for leaching losses. In soils with higher salinity, when the pH value is more than 7.5, the available phosphorus content in the soil is generally low, and fruit trees are often not susceptible to flowering due to phosphorus deficiency. This type of soil chases phosphate fertilizers ( Top dressing or top dressing is an indispensable part of early fruiting and high-yielding topdressing. Phosphorus topdressing in the soil is easily fixed. Therefore, it is advisable to mix it with high-quality organic fertilizers rich in nutrients. 3. Because of tree topdressing: After nutrients are taken from the fruit tree roots, nutrient allocation is limited by the nutrition center, ie, nutrients are preferentially transported to the most active parts of the metabolism, and further promote the growth and development of this part. For example, if Xinwangwang grows fertilizer for a long time, the fertilizer will enter into the long shoots of the new shoots and will further promote the growth. After the shoots have stopped, the central advantage of the prosperous part will weaken or disappear, and the difference in nutrients from topdressing to various organs will decrease. The distribution is relatively balanced, and the auxiliary effects of the weak parts (such as short branches) on the canopy are relatively large, which is conducive to the differentiation of buds. Therefore, different tree growth, different flower and fruit, the purpose of fertilization is different, so the fertilization period should not be the same, fertilization must be combined with plant type. Weakly growing trees, including â€œsmall old treesâ€, should be used to increase the supply of nutrients in order to enhance the growth of branches and leaves. It is best to grow fertilizers in the early and the Shoot growth, weak branches stronger. The trees that grow energetically but have little flowers or grow inefficiently, in order to ease the overgrowth of branches and leaves, and promote the differentiation of short shoots, should avoid long-term growth and top-dressing after new shoots are stopped. Among them, the main long-term (August and early September) should be mainly for the autumn shoots, and the long-term (June and mid-June) should be supplemented by the spring shoots. When the spring shoots are stopped for a long time and the topdressing nitrogen fertilizer is applied, the water should not be too large, so as not to stimulate the growth of the shoots too early. The type of fertilization should also be adjusted for tree conditions. Practice has proved that nitrogen fertilizer helps the growth of branches and leaves obvious, and weak branches rejuvenate more with some nitrogen fertilizer. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers have the effect of alleviating over-proliferation, and it is advisable to increase the amount of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers for the unproductive trees and to reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizers. The top dressing is best applied to the tree trays. Immediately, gently poke, mix the fertilizer, and then water. When the tree plate is covered with grass, it can be directly applied to the grass and then washed down with water; or a corner of the cover grass can be sprinkled on the soil surface, and then the water can be washed down and the grass can be covered. (3) Fertilizer outside roots Fertilizing fruit trees outside the roots of the tree is to spray the fertilizer directly on the branches and leaves of the tree, which can make up for the lack of root absorption or as an emergency measure. Spraying fertilizers outside the roots is not affected by the number of new roots and the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Directly entering the branches and leaves will help change the nutritional status of the tree more quickly. Moreover, after top dressing, the distribution of nutrients is not limited by the growth center, and the distribution is balanced, which is conducive to the relaxation of the tree potential and the strengthening of the weak parts. In addition, top-dressing fertilizers are often used for the correction of zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, boron deficiency, and compound fertilizers. However, the root-spraying fertilizer cannot replace the rhizosphere topdressing fertilizer. The two have their own characteristics and should complement each other. From 10 days to 15 days after the root-spraying, the response of the leaves to the fertilizer element is the most obvious, and gradually decreases afterwards. It disappears from the 25th to the 30th day. Therefore, if you want to play a role in a critical period, separate the leaves in this period. Sprayed continuously for 15 days. After harvesting in autumn, before defoliation and before sprouting in early spring, it is an important period for extra-root fertilizer application. In particular, in Dainian trees and early deciduous trees, due to the small number of new roots in autumn and early spring in the following year, the uptake of soil topdressing is limited. Therefore, the spraying of urea leaf stems in autumn can compensate for the lack of storage nutrients and the absorption of root systems in early spring. A series of growth and development in the spring are very favorable, the flower organs are well developed, the fruit setting rate is high, and the short branches are thick. In addition, zinc, boron and other elements of the lack of correction should also pay attention to the two key periods in the fall and early spring, these two spray correction is generally better than the growth season.
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