Harmonic application of pest control techniques such as citrus pests

Citrus fruit is one of the main fruits in our province, with an area of ​​130,000 hectares. In recent years, due to the optimization of planting structure and further adjustments, more and more large-scale citrus plants have emerged, or citrus and citrus towns, such as the Sihui and Deqing of Zhaoqing City. 0.67 million hectares. Due to the high economic value of citrus, the mass production investment is relatively large. However, in the process of production, the biggest problem people face is the damage of pests, such as crickets, citrus leaf miners, black-winged whitefly, beetles, and fruit suckers. To control these pests and mitigate their damage, farmers often lack scientific control methods and often rely too much on chemical pesticides. According to our survey, orchards generally only control pests, and use chemical pesticides 15-20 times a year, resulting in pest resistance. Re-encountered products and environmental pollution make pests more and more prominent and more and more difficult to deal with. In response to the problems that people face in controlling pests in citrus production, we have conducted explorations and demonstrations of coordinated application of citrus pest control technologies. The research on the control technology of citrus pests is mainly based on the biological and ecological characteristics of pests, and the coordinated use of technologies such as biological control, physical trapping, and ecological control to achieve effective control of citrus pests. At present, the technology has been popularized and applied in the famous crops such as Shatang orange and Gonggan in Sihui, Deqing, Gaoyao, Quang Ninh and other places in Zhaoqing City, and has achieved good results.
1 The coordinated use of technologies in the major technical demonstration areas has captured the major insect pests in the citrus groves, and the technical measures have not conflicted with each other and can solve production problems better.
1.1 Artificial release of courgettes Citrus aurantium (Amblyseius cucumeris) is the main product of major natural predators in the world. It has been sold for 10 years and is mainly used in greenhouses for cucumbers and peppers. A large number of seedlings were released to prevent the occurrence and outbreak of various thrips, and it has also been used to control the thrips in field production. In China, Zhang Yanji and other scientists and technicians from the Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Plant Protection have imported cucurbits from the UK and have been trained to use them in citrus, bamboo and other pest control.
Our province is mainly used in the citrus garden to control the Panony chus citri (Mc Gregor) and rust (Phyllocoptruta oleivor (Ashmead)). Human cockroach dug up was manually released in 2002, and 20 demonstration sites were established in Zhaoqing City, covering an area of ​​more than 20 hectares. In 2003, in conjunction with the development of green food, the government recognized the application of the technology and participated in the promotion and promotion of the application area. The application area has been rapidly expanded and the area for promotion and application this year is expected to reach 450 hectares.
Coprinus comatus has: a large amount of predation, one day can prey on 6-10 claws or about 80 rust lice, life can prey 300-500 head or rust 2000-3000 head; active search prey , swimming activity is strong; the order of preference for prey: eggs - cubs - into maggots, so about 30 days after the release of cockroach dull pupa, the number of larvae is still at a high level.
Manual release of cockroach crows technical operation: 1, drive down the source of insects. The pest density is controlled at 300 heads per louver, and the lower the control density, the faster the control of the release of predator larvae is. The control of the pedestal level of scale insects can be controlled by using the winter clearing garden and releasing the predatory cricket seven days before. Tincture method; 2, the amount of prey released. The hanging fruit tree releases about 300 per plant (300 live larvae per bag, including eggs, pups, and pupas); 3. It is released before the outbreak of pupae. May be considered for release during the beginning of the summer in May and autumn in August; 4. The chemical insecticide and acaricide can not be applied during the release of the cockroach.
From the results of last year's demonstration area survey, in the 30 days after the release of predatory mites, the mites have a countermeasure, that is, the mites still have a high density and then fall rapidly. The reason is that Coprinus comatus has a large number of eggs in the early stage of obstruction, which undoubtedly interrupted the chance of breeding offspring. Second, the cockroach grows and strengthens the team's ability to incubate and grow. However, in the chemical control areas, from September to December, 1-2 times per month, the density of leeches is still high. For example, in the October-November period of the peak occurrence of Citrus Xanthomonas Citrus, the density of all Clams on the leaves of the three biodefense plots (Fig. 1) was investigated on November 20, with a height of 4200 heads/600 leaves and a low of 152 heads. /600 leaves, with an average of 2051 heads/600 leaves; on the fruit (Fig. 3), with a height of 360 heads/120 fruit, a low head/120 fruit, with an average of 154 heads/120 fruit. The three defense areas on the leaves (Figure 2), the high 12,000 / 600 leaves, the lower 8960 / 600 leaves, an average of 10186 / 600 leaves, 4.96 times higher than the biological defense zone; fruit on (Figure 4), The high 2787/120 fruit, the low 957/120 fruit, the average 1959/120 fruit, 13.06 times higher than the biological defense area.
1.2 Using biological agents to control citrus leaf miner
During the period from August to September, each time shooter spray 1-2 times 0.3% azadirachtin EC, control orange leaf miner, and treat pests such as wood lice and aphids.
1.3 The use of electronic moth killing lamps to trap and kill pests uses the sensitivity of the pests to the light source and the vibration band to allow the pests to flutter the lights and kill the insects through the high voltage grid. It is a practical physical control technology. We used the electronic moth killing lamp produced by Beijing Fengmao Plant Protection Equipment Co., Ltd. to seduce and kill pests in the orchard. After collection and analysis, we were able to seduce and kill 6 pests, 15 families and 28 pests in order of Coleoptera (scarabaeoidea), Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. (蝽蟓) is dominant, and the rate of false precipitating to natural enemies is low, compared with the total amount of trapped insects, and false enticing natural enemies (bujiao, crickets, crickets, etc.) only account for 2.18%. From the viewpoint of balance between controlling pests and protecting natural enemies, The electronic moth killing lamp scientifically grasps the principle of seeking advantages and avoiding harm in the selection of light sources and vibration bands. Therefore, it has little effect on natural enemies.
In addition to pests in the Citrus Garden in our province, the insects such as Helicoverpa assulta and Aphis gossypii cause fruit drop. Because of these harms, the light source and vibration wave of the electronic moth killing lamp tend to be strong, and the effect of trapping and killing fruits is more obvious. According to our pilot survey from October 3, 2002 to January 20, 2003. The average 667m2 fruit drop (including physiological fruit drop, the same below) in the demonstration area using the electronic moth eradication lamp was 502 kg, while the control area averaged 609 kg, which was 21.3% higher than the demonstration area.
1.4 Improved eco-environment Citrus garden has a long production cycle, relatively stable general ecosystem, high biodiversity, and abundant natural enemies. However, the masses often have a misunderstanding. They think that more weeds compete with citrus and often use chemicals. Herbicides, as a result of the destruction of the ecosystem. For example, 藿香藿 is a good host and habitat for predatory mites. After using herbicides, the food chain is broken and the predatory mites are rapidly degraded. The ability to control natural disasters is weakened, and the pests will inevitably rise. Therefore, before releasing cockroach, it is necessary to do a good job of cultivation of benign weeds, such as planting musk oysters and retaining benign weeds, so that natural enemies such as cockles have a good cross-summer (July-August). surroundings.
2 Evaluation and discussion
2.1 Effect on Fruit Quality
2.1.1 Coordinating the Appearance of Harmful Pest Control Techniques Reduce Harmfulness of Pests to Citrus Fruits. Therefore, the crowns are green and blue, and have strong photosynthesis; fruits have bright color, low fruit rate, good fruit rate, and sugar content. Higher, eating sweet and delicious.
2.1.2 Pesticide Residues According to our test results on fruit picking at the nine demonstration sites, no samples with excessive pesticide residues were detected. For the three conventional points, there were two pesticide residues exceeding the limit.
2.2 Harmonize the use of various measures to grasp the current prominent targets and effectively control pests. However, the organisms are changeable. Therefore, the measures adopted must be adjusted according to the changed circumstances in order to adapt to the needs of production.
2.3 Coprinus comatus and other measures to cope with the use of a variety of measures to change the way to rely on pesticides to control pests, but the slow control of the cockroach crickets and the people's pursuit of rapid control of the existence of a conflict, in the promotion and application, the need for mass science Propaganda, let them accept, can rise to conscious action.

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