The peanut production in China's domestic regions is relatively low, and the economic benefits for farmers are not high enough to curb the development of the peanut industry. The southern provinces of China can increase their income through spring and autumn plantings. Based on many years of practical experience, the author summarizes the techniques for high-yield cultivation of autumn-planted peanuts as follows: 1. Deep-cultivation site preparation and adequate application of ground fertilizer Peanuts are deep-rooted crops. The root groups are distributed in the living soil layer. The most suitable soil condition for growth and development is the living soil layer. Deep, ploughing layer loose, dry when not scattered, wet sand sticky soil is conducive to deep rooting. 1. Deep ploughing is 20-25 cm deep with cattle plows or tractors. Site preparation can be carried out 10-15 days in advance. Two ploughs and three rakes are used to plow the soil, smash it, smash it, weather it, and form a loose, moist soil layer. 2, ridging in areas where the soil is heavy, the sea breeze is large, and the soil is prone to drought. The planting of peanuts in autumn should be cultivated, increasing the area of â€‹â€‹sunshine, increasing soil temperature, and increasing soil layers.ç•¦ 10-15 cm high, furrows deep and 30 cm wide. 3, the application of base fertilizer peanuts strong root absorption, peanut seeds contain a lot of fat and protein, the main fertilizer required is nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, especially phosphorus, potassium demand higher than other crops. According to the results of the Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences, under the condition of 266.5-290 kilograms of peanuts per acre, 16.01-19.46 kilograms of nitrogen, 3.38-3.88 kilograms of phosphorus, and 7.8-10.24 kilograms of phosphorus are required to be absorbed; the ratio is 1:0.22-0.9:0.49. 0.53. However, because peanuts can fix nitrogen through root nodules, the proportion of fertilization can generally be 1:1:2. Peanut base fertilizer is dominated by decomposed organic soil miscellaneous fertilizers, with the application of phosphate fertilizer, grass ash (or potassium chloride), lime and so on. Autumn peanuts usually bloom about 20 days. The vegetative growth period is shorter than that of spring peanuts (usually 110-120 days). In the early rainy season where the temperature is high, the fertilizer is decomposed quickly and easily consumed. Therefore, the base fertilizer must be applied. Otherwise, often due to the lack of early nutrition, poor plant nutrient growth, resulting in late branching, fewer branches, yield is not high. The basal fertilizer has 3,000 kg of high-quality farmyard fertilizer per mu, 20 kg of superphosphate, 15 kg of peanut bran, 100 kg of plant ash, 30 kg of lime mixed, and composted as the base fertilizer. Second, the selection of seeds, timely early sowing 1, the selection of peanut seed germination seedlings need to rely on the seed itself. As the saying goes, the seedlings are big. The use of large, full-grown seeds is an important measure for seedlings. Before shelling, the pods should be sunned for 2 days to break the dormancy period and increase the germination rate. 2. The germination of the seedlings with germination and soaking of the peanuts can effectively increase the germination rate, and the effect of planting on seedlings and seedlings can be achieved. Seeds are soaked in warm water at 40Â°C for 4 hours, spread out on a mat, kept moist, exposed white tip (radius) 12-24 hours, and can be sowed. In case of inability to sow in rainy days, the germinating seeds should be placed in a cool, ventilated place and spread into a thin layer, but care should be taken to suppress the growth of buds. 3. Seeding sowing of peanuts in early tropical and subtropical regions should be planted during the period from â€œearly autumnâ€ to â€œsummer heatâ€. Premature sowing will easily lead to leggy, more pests and diseases, is not conducive to flowering and scarring; autumn planting peanuts mature temperature should be above 18 Â°C, if too late sowing, late low-temperature drought, strong fruit stunt development, more empty fruit, Low Yield. Third, rational close planting to ensure that the whole seedling autumn peanut seeding period is in a high temperature, rain and more environment, planting should be appropriately increased sowing density. Acres seeding 2.2 - 24,000, with double-grained planting, open shallow trench drill. If the quality of fertilizers is high, the concentration is large (such as pig manure), and seeds are easily damaged, the method of separating the soil should be adopted. That is, a layer of thin river sand should be sprinkled on the shallow ditch. After sowing, cover with a layer of river sand to cover and then cover. Thin soil. After the emergence of seedlings to fill in the lack of time to ensure that the whole seedlings. Double seeding per hole, such as the lack of a seedling can not make up, such as the whole point lack of seedlings should be promptly transplanted seedlings replanted or seeded with seed germination direct seedlings. Fourth, to strengthen management, timely top-dressing fertilizer, a row of dry and irrigated peanuts is the need for more water crops, water characteristics are "two less, more in the middle." Autumn peanuts have more rainfall in the early stage, and they are afraid of the seedlings. They need to drain the gutters in time. Generally, it is better to use furrow irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. If small water is poured, it should not be flooded. To prevent the plants from drought and wither, no irrigation conditions, it is difficult to achieve high yield. 2. The first cultivating and weeding of the cultivating and weeding soil is carried out when the plants have 3-4 true leaves, and the second time after 10 days. The last cultivator is carried out during the flowering period. According to the experience of the peasants, the head should be shallow all over the place, and the second time should be deep enough to loosen the land. The first soil was combined with the last cultivator, and the peas in the rows were transplanted to the peanut base with a rake, and the second cultivating was performed after 10 days in conjunction with the rind sulcus. 3. After timely application of fertilizer Qimiao, 5 kg of urea per acre is applied when the soil is wet after rain, promoting early branching and early flowering. The nutrients absorbed by peanuts during the flowering period accounted for 60% of the total amount of fertilizers absorbed in one lifetime. Therefore, the utilization rate of fertilizers during the flowering acupuncture stage was high, and the yield increase effect was significant. At this time, 20 kg of compound fertilizer was applied per acre. After Xiehua, 60 kilos of black and white ash (30 kg of lime powder and 30 kg of grass and wood ash) are spread per acre to prevent premature aging and premature emergence of seedlings. 4. Spraying trace elements with 100 grams of sodium borate and 50 liters of water per acre, spraying once at the initial flowering stage and full flowering stage. Boron fertilizer can stimulate pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, which is conducive to fertilization. 5, the prevention and control of pests and insect pests, seedling period can be used to spray killing 600 times malathion, in the middle and late can be used to kill 800 times trichlorfon. For leaf spot and rust, the drug should be used at the flowering stage. It can be used alternately with 1:2:200 Bordeaux liquid or colloidal sulphur 150 times and chlorothalonil 800 times. The control effect is good.
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