Magnolia tree cultivation management technology

Yulan, also known as Baiyulan, Yutangchun, Muhuashu, is a deciduous tree of Magnolia genus Magnolia, native to Anhui, Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou, Guangdong, Shanxi, and other regions in Beijing and to the south. For cultivation. Magnolia is white and fragrant, and it is an important early spring flower tree species in gardens. It is popular among people, and is suitable for the cultivation of jellyfish, spring, peony, and sweet-scented osmanthus. It is full of good luck and wealth, and it has “Yufuchunfugui”. The good name. The cultivation and management techniques of Magnolia are introduced as follows and are for reference only.

First, common ornamental species in the same genus

There are about 90 species of Magnoliaceae and about 30 species in China. Common species and cultivars in gardens include: Magnolia denudatacv. Feihuang, Magnolialiliflora Desr, Magnolia biondiipamp, Magnoliax saulange. (Lindl.) Soul.-Bod.), Magnolia denud var. purpurascens Rehd. etwils, and the like.

Second, the choice of planting environment

Magnolia Hi light, young trees more shade-tolerant, intolerant of glare and the West, the light is too strong or the sun, it is easy to make the trees burned. Magnolia can be planted in the environment of side light block, planted under the big tree or under the shade is poor growth, the tree is thin, branches are sparse, the leaves are small and yellow, no flowers or flowers are small; Magnolia is more cold-resistant, able to withstand -20 A low temperature of °C, but it is not suitable for planting in the tuyere. Otherwise, it is prone to pumping. In Beijing, the leeward sunny place can be safely overwintered in the open air without any measures such as wringing; Magnolia enjoys fertile, moist and well-drained slightly acidic soil. Can also grow in mild saline-alkali soil (pH 8.2, salt content 0.2%); Magnolia is a fleshy root, afraid of water, planting terrain is high, easy to rot in roots and cause death; magnolia planting Soil permeability is also better in the ground, poor growth when planted in clay, and best growth in sandy loam soil and yellow sand soil.

III. Digging and planting of seedlings

Magnolia is not tolerant to transplanting, and it is generally preferable to transplant 10-15 days before germination or transplanting when the flower is just thankful. The seedlings should be poured once every 4 to 5 days before the seedlings are lifted. This will not only allow the plants to absorb enough water, but will also help them to survive after planting. It will also help the soil in the soil when digging seedlings. During the excavation, the root system should be minimized and the root-cut wounds must be smooth to facilitate wound healing. In addition, it should be noted that no matter how large the seedlings are, the soil ball should be carried. The soil ball diameter should be the diameter of the seedlings. To 10 times, not too small, too small will not protect the root system. After the soil ball is dug, it must be tied with straw ropes to prevent it from spreading during transportation.

Before the planting, the tree pits should be dug. The tree pits should not be small and the tree pits are too small. It is not only planting troubles, but it is also not conducive to the growth of roots. The bottom soil of tree pits is preferably mature soil. Soils that are too viscous or have pH and salt content exceeding the standard should be treated with soil or soil. The permeability of the cultivated soil must be better, the soil fertility must be sufficient, and sufficient nutrients must be supplied to the plants. There must be no impurities such as bricks, tiles, and lime in the soil. Depth should be appropriate when planting, in general, the planting depth can be slightly higher than the original soil ball 2 to 3 cm, too deep is prone to stuffy buds, shallow roots will expose the roots, but also easily blown down by the wind. Large-size seedlings should be erected in time for a good stent, stents available triangular support to prevent wind tilt; After planting, should be immediately watered, 2 days after the second water pouring, 5 days after the pouring of three water, Sanshui can enter the normal management. If the seedlings are planted with buds, the buds should be cut off to prevent the flowering result from consuming large amounts of nutrients and affecting the survival rate.

IV. Water and fertilizer management

Magnolia is neither tolerant nor tolerant to drought. In cultivation and conservation, it should strictly follow the principle of “sweetness and fear of embarrassment”. In the cultivation and conservation process, many people think that Magnolia is afraid of embarrassment and should minimize watering. This understanding and practice is very wrong, because the fear of magnolia is not equal to drought, it itself likes the moist environment, The management of water should be such that the soil cannot be too dry or too wet. After years of cultivation, the author believes that in the cultivation process, the soil should be kept moist without water accumulation. During the conservation process, the newly planted magnolia should keep the soil moist, which is also an important measure to ensure its survival rate. Watering Magnolia into the normal management, returning Qingshui in early spring, antifreezing water in the early winter is indispensable, and it must be poured thoroughly. During the growing season, water can be poured once a month, and watering should be stopped during the rainy season. After the rain, it should be drained in time to prevent it from causing rot because of the accumulation of water. In addition, it should also be carried out in time to protect the soil. It should be noted that irrigation is also required during the dry period of the rainy season. The lack of water not only affects the vegetative growth of the plants, but also leads to the loss or atrophy of the buds, affecting the flowering of the following year.

In addition, in the case of poor site conditions, especially in areas with large hardened areas and small green areas, Magnolia is planted in the case of continuous high-temperature and dry weather. Water should be sprayed on the roots while spraying water at the same time. The degree of atomization and the higher the degree of atomization are, the better the effect is. The water spray time is best after 8:00 am and 6:00 pm, and cannot be performed when the light intensity is strong at noon. For the magnolia that suffered damage, it is necessary to rescue it at the first time. First, it is necessary to eliminate stagnant water in time. The second is to shade the tree body, especially to prevent the western sun, and third, to cut off some leaves and buds.

Magnolia fertilizer, in addition to the application of base fertilizer when planting, after which every year should be fertilized, adequate fertilizer can make plants grow vigorously, leaves green hypertrophy, not only buds, but also flowers, flowering long and aromatic fragrance. To fertilize Magnolia four times a year, that is, before applying a nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium compound fertilizer, this fertilizer can not only improve the flowering quality, but also conducive to the growth of the spring; After the application of a nitrogen fertilizer, this fertilizer can increase The amount of plant growth and the expansion of nutrient area; the application of phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer in July and August, this fertilizer can promote flower bud differentiation, increase the degree of lignification of new shoots; combined with pouring winter water before winter and then apply a decomposed fermentation In addition, the fertilizer can not only increase the activity of the soil, but also effectively increase the ground temperature, and the amount of fertilizer should not be too small. In addition, the seedlings planted in the current year can be sprayed with foliar 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution if they are growing poorly, which can effectively increase the tree vigor.

V. Winter Management

Although Magnolia can tolerate low temperatures of -20°C, small-scale magnolia and magnolia planted in the past should be strengthened for overwintering management. In addition to pouring defecate water after the leaves fall in mid-late and late November, the tree pits should also be covered with grass. After coating or earthing, the tree can be painted white to prevent spring drawing. Magnolia, which has been planted for many years, can only be poured with antifreeze and white.

VI. Pest Control

1. Disease Magnolia is a tree species with strong disease resistance. The main diseases are anthracnose, yellowing disease and leaf burn.

(1) Symptoms and regularities of anthrax: Anthracnose mainly harms the leaves of magnolia. From the tips of the leaves or leaf margins, irregular lesions begin to form, or near-circular lesions develop on the surfaces of the leaves. The lesions were brownish-watery at the beginning of the lesion, with small black particles on the surface, dark brown ridges on the edges, and distinct boundaries from healthy areas. The pathogen of anthracnose is wintering on the tree body or deciduous with mycelia, and conidia are produced in the spring of the next year. The spores spread to the plants through wind and rain. The spores germinate in water droplets, invade the leaf tissue, and cause disease. In the summer high temperature and high humidity period is the peak period of onset. Plant water and fertilizer management is not in place, dense and not ventilated, the disease is very likely to occur when the growth is declining.

Control methods: Strengthen water and fertilizer management, increase tree vigor, and increase disease resistance; remove diseased leaves in time, remove fallen leaves at the end of autumn and concentrate on burning; use 75% chlorothalonil wettable granules 800 times or 70% anthrax if available 500 times liquid spray, once every 10 days, continuous spraying 3 to 4 times can effectively control the condition. Special effects: special effects on diseases caused by fungi such as Penicillium, Etheromycetes, and Amigos.

(2) Symptoms and regularities of yellowing disease: Firstly, the leaflets chlorosis, chlorophyll is gradually reduced, the leaves are yellow or light yellow, and the veins are still green. After the disease spreads, the entire leaf turns yellow, and then gradually turns white, and plant growth occurs. Gradually decline and eventually die.

Control methods: Yellowing disease is a kind of physiological disease, which is mainly caused by insufficient soil and excessive supply of iron due to excessive soil viscosity, excessive pH value. Can be used 0.2% ferrous sulfate solution to root, can also be used 0.1% ferrous sulfate solution for leaf spray, and should be more than farmyard fertilizer.

(3) Symptoms and regularities of leaf burn: The initial manifestation was the leaf blade of the plant. After that, the leaf gradually shrank and dried up. When the disease became severe, the new leaf could not be developed, and the leaf was dry and shedding. Poor site conditions, such as hardening area, green area is small; prolonged high temperature, drought, light is too strong; soil alkalizing or flowering and other situations often occur in the disease.

Control methods: Increase the frequency of watering to keep the soil moist; apply more organic fertilizer, increase tree vigor, and increase plant resistance; apply whitening or wrapping to the tree body.

2. Insect Pests The main pests of magnolia are: cockroaches, moths, red spiders, and hornbills. Occasionally, underground pests such as cockroaches are harmful. If pests occur, 80% dichlorvos EC 800 times or 50% Caesarean EC 800 times can be used to kill the codling moth; 800 times of Bt emulsion or 50% of cassava EC can be killed 800 times. Kill the spider mite with 40% dicofol 800 times solution or 5% Nissopol 2000 times solution; kill the longhorned beetle with 500 times solution of green Wei Lei; kill the alfalfa with 50% solution of zinc thiophosphonate 1000 times solution.

Seven, pruning and shaping

Because the callus of Magnolia has poor callus ability, it is generally not trimmed if it is not necessary. If the tree is not beautiful or is more chaotic, the branch of the pest, dry and dead shoots, drooping branches and leggy branches, and overlying branches should be cut. And useless shoots are removed to facilitate plant ventilation and light transmission. Pruning time is performed before the leaf is displayed in early spring. Magnolia generally does not carry out short cuts, so as not to cut off flower buds. If you need to trim, apply Bordeaux mixture to larger wounds to prevent infection.

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