The main points of cultivation of soybeans

(1) According to the length of growing period, soybeans can be divided into three types: early-maturing, middle-maturing and late-maturing.

(2) The seedlings and early maturing types of cultivation methods were mainly seedling transplanting, while the medium and late maturing types were all broadcast live. Live seedlings or seedlings transplanted in time to make soil preparation, the width of the surface according to the habits of the region, generally good drainage, low groundwater level, the surface can be appropriately wide; on the contrary, to be narrow, but it must be opened Ditch, long Yao to add a ditch, in order to achieve both drainage and irrigation.

Before the planting, the seeds were selected and the miscellaneous seeds, the bad seeds and the rice dumplings were removed. The seeding rate is 5.0 to 7.5 kg per 667 square meters.

After the transplanting, the seedlings should be leveled and smashed. The seeds should be sown on the stubble or even sown in the pods. Each seed should be sown with 3-4 seeds, then the fine mud should be covered, and then the mulch should be covered. Shed insulation. The sowing time is from early March to late. If mulching film is used for cultivation, the sowing date is from late March to early April. For other open-field cultivation, the sowing date is from early April to late June.

When the seedlings are unearthed, the mulch film must be removed in time, and the leaves can be planted when the heart appears. Before planting, we must pour enough water to facilitate the transplanting with more soil to facilitate the live tree. When planting a field, plant water while planting, and pour water once a day until you live.

The live broadcasting generally uses hole sowing, and it also adopts broadcast. Due to different varieties, the row spacing is also different.

Premature types of hole sowing line spacing 20 cm, hole spacing 15 cm, sowing 3 to 5 per hole; drilling, spacing 30 to 33 cm, spacing 6 to 8 cm.

The medium ripe type sows the row spacing of 30-33 centimeters, the point distance is 15-20 centimeters, sows 3 to 5 seeds per hole; the seeding, spacing is 33-36 centimeters, the spacing of the plants is 8 to 10 centimeters.

Late-maturing types of sowing are about 33 centimeters apart, 20 to 25 centimeters in diameter, 3 to 5 seeds per hole, and 40 centimeters spacing and 10 to 12 centimeters spacing.

(3) For the precocity of colonization, the method of nursery is adopted, and the colonization period is in the middle of April. The plantlets should be planted in order to benefit the living tree.

(4) Immediately after field management, the field management of young soybean seedlings should be seedlings and not squeezed. Simultaneous seedlings must be promptly filled to ensure that the whole seedlings.

Soybeans should be loosened throughout the growing season, weeding 2-3 times, seedling height 30 cm or so when soil is combined with soil, to promote root growth.

The precocious type can catch manure water (or a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer) 1 to 2 times before flowering depending on the fertility of the soil. The middle and late types are not suitable for nitrogen fertilizer. However, regardless of the type of early, middle and late varieties, 0.2% to 0.3% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate must be sprayed before and during flowering to increase the filling rate of soybean meal and increase yield.

Under normal circumstances, it is not necessary to water, and in case of continuous high temperature and drought in summer, it can be used for irrigation 1 to 2 times.

Pests harmful to green soybeans mainly include aphids, small tigers, red spiders, bean pods, and caterpillars. Attention should be paid to prevention and control.

(5) Harvesting harvesting period varies according to the variety and sowing date. Harvest is full of rich grain and bright green pods. Harvesting too early or too late can affect the yield and quality of the product. Early-maturing varieties (known as early-early soybeans) in Shanghai were harvested at the end of May; mid-mature varieties (called medium-sized soybeans) were harvested in mid-to-late June; late-maturing varieties (called late-to-peas) were harvested in early September. Close to late October. Production of 500-800 kg per 667 square meters.

(6) Seedlings can be selected according to the conditions of flowering and scarring. Marking should be done. After ripening, they should be collected and used as seed for seed retention. The preserved soybeans must be fully matured before they are harvested, and should be picked up early in the morning to prevent cracking of the soybean meal. After the plants are picked up, they are piled up for 3 to 5 days and then threshed. Then they are stored for 2 to 3 days. The output of seeds per 667 square meters is 50-70 kg. The useful life of seeds is one year, and it is necessary to retain seed for each year.

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